Validating quantitative data model
In this step, the researcher should identify the purpose of the test, specify the content area to be studied, and identify the target group.
If it is determined that there are no instruments available that measure the variables in a study, there are four rigorous phases for developing an instrument that accurately measures the variables of interest (Creswell, 2005).
Those four phases are: planning, construction, quantitative evaluation, and validation.
To determine if an appropriate instrument is available, a researcher can search literature and commercially available databases to find something suitable to the study.